knowledgeable and insightful instructor is the key to effective learning.
Nursing faculty must call upon a knowledge base in learning and teaching
as well as an extensive repertoire of useful strategies to reach learning
the past decade, there has been a shift in thinking about the educational
process among faculty in higher education: from the "Instruction
Paradigm," to the "Learning Paradigm." The new structure
involves the students actively constructing their own knowledge, whereas
the teacher's job changes to one of manipulating the environment to allow
active student discovery of knowledge.
Although students need to know certain facts before they can apply and
critically think about them, students need time and help in applying essential
facts after learning them cognitively. Learning experts report that student
retain only 20% of what they hear in a lecture and even less of what they
read on their own. Students retain more when they are active participants
in the processing the information rather than passive recipients of knowledge.
Outcomes faculty members need to produce in their students are the ability
to think critically, problem solve, and remember and apply pertinent information
(Ulrich & Glendon, 1999).
must select learning strategies that enhance his/her teaching and adhere
to sound educational principles such as those proposed by Chickering and
Gamson (1993). Specifically, our strategies should meet the seven
principles of good practice in undergraduate education:
contact between students and faculty
reciprocity and cooperation among students,
time on task,
high expectations, and
diverse talents and ways of learning.